#### i. Redesign the Light Path and Build Microscope

**INTRODUCTION**

Bacteria are the smallest micro-organisms, ranging from between 0.0001 and 0.001 mm in size. Phytoplankton and protozoa range from about 0.001 mm to about 0.25 mm. The largest phytoplankton and protozoa can be seen with the naked eye, but most can only been seen under a microscope.

#### ii. Arithmetic Operations

**INTRODUCTION**

Mathematical biology is the work that uses mathematical approaches to gain biological understanding or explain biological phenomena. The most fundamental branch of math is arithmetic operations. Applying arithmetic operations to biology, providing biological insight as a result of mathematical analysis or identify and open up challenging new types of mathematical problems that derive from biological knowledge (in the form of data, or theory, or simulation results).

#### iii. Mathematical Modeling

**INTRODUCTION**

Mathematical models allow researchers to investigate how complex regulatory processes are connected and how disruptions of these processes may contribute to the development of disease. In addition, computational models help investigators to systematically analyze systems perturbations, develop hypotheses to guide the design of new experimental tests, and ultimately assess the suitability of specific molecules as novel therapeutic targets.